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Błędowska Desert is the largest sandy area in Poland with an area of approximately 32 km², stretching between the Silesian Upland and the Olkuska Upland and bordering directly with the Upper Silesian Industrial District.
This relatively small desert area of anthropogenic origin has 10 km long and 4 km width. The Biała Przemsza River flows through the Błędowska Desert, near which a charming desert "oasis" is created.
The Błędowska Desert is not a desert in the climatic sense, but the area is characterized by a specific landscape that evokes the desert.
Today, it is trying to protect this unique landscape by cutting down growing trees.
The program "Protection of the mosaic of natural habitats in the Biała Przemsza River catchment" aims to prepare the 12-kilometer nature trail, reforestation of the Błędowska Desert and clearing the area of unexploded ordnance.
The entire area of the Błędowska Desert is covered by three forms of protection:
-obszar Natura 2000 „Pustynia Błędowska”
- Landscape of the Eagles' Nests
Ice age and successive glaciations caused that the bottom of the valley gradually filled with sands and gravels, and the blowing winds prevented the development of vegetation.
When the climate changed, a thick forest grew here, from which since the 13th century wood was regularly acquired for the construction and reinforcement of shafts growing in the vicinity of silver and lead mines. This led to the creation of a desert.
After the end of the Second World War, part of the Błędowska Desert was planted with a fallow willow and pine, which resulted in a reduction of sandy areas.
From the beginning of the 20th century, this area was used as a training ground, first by Polish troops, and then by German air force. Today, also part of the Błędowska Desert serves as a training ground for paratroopers.
The depth of the sands of the Błędowska Desert ranges from 17 to 20 meters. They are made of fine quartz grains with an admixture of other minerals.
Fulguryts are clumps of minerals, created as a result of melting sand by lightning.
In the Błędowska Desert, there are sand dunes and marginal embankments, which diversify quite a monotonous landscape.
Fatamorgans and sandstorms appear relatively rarely here, due to the fact that the landscape is becoming less and less deserted over the years. Growing near a pine forest and overgrown dunes the meadow changed the look of this place.
However, wind is still a desertification agent.
Inland waterways with sandy grasslands
- semi-volatile, inland grasslands
- willow, poplar, alder and ash forests
In the summer, the sand in the Błędowska Desert warms up to temperatures reaching even 70 st.C, and the humidity is low, so the plants occurring here are characterized by a high resistance to drying and a strongly developed root system.
An endemic plant grows here, Warzucha poland, occurring only here, although its positions are less and less.
In the Błędowska Desert there are only about 100 species of vascular plants characterized by adaptations to life in difficult desert conditions.
Here are some of them:
- Spring spell
- bare foot
- Common velvet
- Stalks without stems
-Warzucha polska – endemit
There are mainly insects and birds in the Błędowska Desert, but also reptiles, amphibians and mammals, and fish in the river. There are approximately 150 species of fauna added here.
There are, among others:
- Field grass
-chrząszcz - Trzyszcz
- Honey Bee
- Black woodpecker
- Field grass
- Smooth spider
- Sand worm
- Normal waste
-A regular frog
- Zygzag viper
- Earth spider
In the Błędowska Desert more and more often various events are organized, such as:
- family photos
Wzgórze Czubatka in Klucze. There is a car park, an observation deck and gazebos. It leads from here a yellow trail to the Błędowska Desert and to Błędów.
Wzgórze Dąbrówka with a viewpoint bearing educational boards, in Chechło. The access to the Błędowska Desert is marked with brown plates.
Róża Wiatrów is a viewpoint that was created in 2018 year. You can get here from the road connecting Klucze and Hutki. For tourists, a viewing platform, gazebos, platforms and a pier have been prepared. Nature attractions of the Błędowska Desert are presented by information boards. From here you can go for walks along educational paths.
Błędowskia Desert is a very attractive area for walking not only on foot, but also on horseback.
-the Yellow Walking Desert Trail connects the Bugs with the Keys
- orange riding trail, so-called Transjurajski Horse Trail, with a branch leading to Chechło through the ferry in Biała Przemsza
The designated nature trail along the Błędowska Desert has a length of 3 kilometers and is led by red signs. It runs from Klucz, through fragments of a mixed forest, elevation with outliers, desert sands and ends among the marshlands over Biała Przemsza.
The educational trail around Kluczewska Land, marked in black, with a length of 1,5 km, begins in the vicinity of Czerwone and Zielony Staw, on the outskirts of the Błędowska Desert. It leads through limestone dwellings, Rudnica foothills, Jałowce hill and ends on Rudnicka street
Two other educational trails lead through the boggy valley of Biała Przemsza and the Biała River. The only path through the Błędowska Desert runs north-west of Klucze.
- the name Błędowska Desert appeared in the 1889 year thanks to Wacław Nałkowski
- the phenomenon of mirage happened here
-legenda says that the desert was made of sand scattered by the devil. He wanted to fill the silver mine in Olkusz with sand.
-Pustynia Błędowska posłużyła jako plener do filmu „Faraon”
-The average annual rainfall here is 726 mm, and the average temperature during the year is 7,3 ° C
- from Częstochowa via S1, then E40 through Olkusz to Chechło
from Krakow through Olkusz to Klucze and Chechło
from Katowice in the direction of Sosnowiec, then to Olkusz and to Chechło